Teaching and testing
Teaching and testing have been understood as two interrelated components. Many experts in curriculum planning, teaching, and testing have discussed the interrelationship between the two.

Approaches to Language Testing
According to Brown (1996) there are three movements of language testing approaches: the psychometric-structural movement, the integrative socio-linguistic movement, and the communicative movement. Djiwandono (1996) states five approaches of language testing: the traditional, discrete, integrative, pragmatic, and communicative approach.

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Ida Bagus Nyoman Mantra was educated in New Zealand and Indonesia in various subjects related to language teaching and hospitality training. He is an experienced English and Indonesian teacher as well as highly professional hospitality trainer. His academic writing and research papers have been published nationally and internationally.

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