Teaching and testing
Teaching and testing have been understood as two interrelated components. Many experts in curriculum planning, teaching, and testing have discussed the interrelationship between the two.

Approaches to Language Testing
According to Brown (1996) there are three movements of language testing approaches: the psychometric-structural movement, the integrative socio-linguistic movement, and the communicative movement. Djiwandono (1996) states five approaches of language testing: the traditional, discrete, integrative, pragmatic, and communicative approach.

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